In rural areas, around 70% of working handpumps surveyed across in Uganda, Malawi and Ethiopia provided good quality water, with only 9% affected by chemical contamination (fluoride, arsenic, nitrate). 21% were affected by bacteriological contamination. However, work by other researchers has shown that water collected from community water points often becomes contaminated in the home before use.
References and further information
- MacAllister et al. (2020) Comparative performance of rural water supplies during drought. Nature Comms
- Kebede et al (2019) Physical factors contributing to rural water supply functionality performance in Ethiopia. , BGS
- Owor, et al (2019) Physical factors contributing to rural water supply functionality performance in Uganda.
- Mwathunga, et al (2019) Physical factors contributing to rural water supply functionality performance in Malawi.
- Datturi et al (2015) “Comparing Defluoridation and Safe Sourcing For Fluorosis Mitigation in the Ethiopian Central Rift Valley” Fluoride
- Tekle-Haimanot et al. (2014), “Chronic Alcohol Consumption and the Development of Skeletal Fluorosis in a Fluoride Endemic Area of the Ethiopian Rift Valley,” J. of Water Resource and Protection