By Sean Furey, Skat Foundation/RWSN/UPGro
Where does wealth come from? At its most basic, it is the difference between how much you invest in a product or service and how much you get from selling it. If the difference is positive you get wealth, if it is negative then you get trouble.
For a country like Zambia, the biggest source of wealth comes from underground: copper, oil and many other minerals and metals. Every aspect of our lives, from fertilisers, to homes, to solar panels depends on what can be dug from the ground. The scale on which mining and quarrying is done varies from a single person digging a hole, to the world’s largest machines demolishing mountains. Mining is also an economic activity that stretches from the very local to the most globalised trade.
In that context, groundwater can also be seen as a mineral resource on which the wealth of a country depends, so it was great that UPGro and RWSN were invited by the University of Zambia to run a special session on hydrogeology in Africa at the International Conference on Geology, Mining, Mineral and Groundwater Resources of the Sub-Saharan Africa, held in Livingstone, Zambia, in July.
The conference was opened by the President of Zambia, HE Edgar Lungu, who stressed the importance of groundwater and mineral resources to the economy, society and environment of Zambia and Africa more widely.
He was followed by a keynote speech by UPGro Ambassador, Dr Callist Tindimugaya of the Ministry of Water & Environment Uganda who gave the 400+ audience an overview of exciting groundwater initiatives happening across Africa, in particular highlighting UPGro, GRIPP, RWSN’s work on drilling professionalisation,the Africa Groundwater Network and the re-boot of the AMCOW Africa Groundwater Commission which took place the following week in Dar es Salaam.
One of the eye-opening facts that was presented by the government during the event that more than half of electricity generated in Zambia is used by the mining industry and most of that is used for de-watering mines – pumping water out of the ground and dumping it – contaminated – into rivers. Clearly a change in mindset is needed to see groundwater as a source of wealth to be used wisely for the benefit of all, not a problem that sends money pouring down the drain.
photos: Dr Callist Tindimugaya gives a keynote presentation on Groundwater Resources Management in Sub-Saharan Africa: Status, Challenges and Prospects.
UPGro-RWSN Special Session on Hydrogeology in Africa and Drilling Professionalisation
A research team, led by Prof. Alan MacDonald of BGS, has been awarded research funding by the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) for a study entitled “Monitoring the impact of the 2015/16 El Nino on rural water insecurity in Ethiopia: learning lessons for climate resilience“
El Niño is a prolonged warming of sea surface temperatures in the central and east-central Pacific that occurs irregularly at 3-6 year intervals. El Niño weakens the trade winds and alters the monsoon pattern which affects global weather patterns and typically results in drought conditions in Southern Africa and Southeast Asia and enhanced rainfall in Eastern Africa and South America.
Continue reading New El Niño research grant awarded to UPGro investigators
re-posted from: http://allafrica.com/stories/201607200647.html
By Callist Tindimugaya
Callist Tindimugaya argues that the water beneath Africans’ feet could transform the continent’s agricultural production, but only if it is managed wisely
Continue reading Africa: #AWW6 – Going to Groundwater to Transform African Agriculture
The Eawag “Groundwater Assessment Platform”, funded by SDC, is now live: http://www.gapmaps.org/
“Over 300 million people worldwide use groundwater contaminated with arsenic or fluoride as a source of drinking water. The Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) has developed a method whereby the risk of contamination in a given area can be estimated using geological, topographical and other environmental data without having to test samples from every single groundwater resource. The research group’s knowledge is now being made available free of charge on an interactive Groundwater Assessment Platform (GAP). enables authorities, NGOs and other professionals to upload their own data and generate hazard maps for their areas of interest.” More..
Other interesting and recent research and reports on fluoride and arsenic in groundwater:
- Datturi, van Steenbergen, van Beusekom, Kebede (2015) “Comparing Defluoridation and Safe Sourcing For Fluorosis Mitigation in the Ethiopian Central Rift Valley” Fluoride 48(4)281-304, October-December 2015
- Tekle-Haimanot R. and G. Haile (2014),“Chronic Alcohol Consumption and the Development of Skeletal Fluorosis in a Fluoride Endemic Area of the Ethiopian Rift Valley,”Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 6 No. 2, 2014, pp. 149-155. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.62020.y
- Meta Meta / Addis Ababa University (2014) “Improving access to safe drinking water: Prospection for low-fluoride sources.” Brief report presenting main findings – Addis Ababa”, August 2014 , Meta Meta Research: http://www.rural-water-supply.net/en/resources/details/619
Coming very soon – the Africa Groundwater Atlas
On the World Bank’s Water Blog, Jacob Burke and Marcus Wijnen make the case for better groundwater governance:
Groundwater stored in the earth’s crust underpins all our lives – the ultimate source of freshwater for billions has become victim of over-extraction and the ultimate sink for pollutants.
For too long, not enough has been done to regulate the use of this precious, on-demand resource and manage disposal of waste. If rates of groundwater depletion have tripled in the past 3 decades, then the rate at which pollutants have accumulated in shallow aquifers can only have equaled or exceeded that rate.
Continue reading Why it’s time to elevate groundwater – The World Bank
Although not an UPGro study, this is a relevant new paper by Lapworth, D.J.; Carter, R .C.; Pedley, S.; MacDonald, A.M.. 2015 Threats to groundwater supplies from contamination in Sierra Leone, with special reference to Ebola care facilities. Nottingham, UK, British Geological Survey, 87pp. (OR/15/009)
The outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa in 2014 is the worst single outbreak recorded, and has resulted in more fatalities than all previous outbreaks combined. This outbreak has resulted in a large humanitarian effort to build new health care facilities, with associated water supplies. Although Ebola is not a water-borne disease, care facilities for Ebola patients may become sources of outbreaks of other, water-borne, diseases spread through shallow groundwater from hazard sources such as open defecation, latrines, waste dumps and burial sites to water supplies. The focus of this rapid desk study is to assess from existing literature the evidence for sub-surface transport of pathogens in the context of the hydrogeological and socio-economic environment of Sierra Leone. In particular, the outputs are to advise on the robustness of the evidence for an effective single minimum distance for lateral spacing between hazard sources and water supply, and provide recommendations for protecting water supplies for care facilities as well as other private and public water supplies in this region.
Preliminary conclusions were:
- Considering the climate (heavy intense rainfall for 8 months), the hydrogeological conditions (prevalent shallow and rapidly fluctuating water tables, permeable tropical soils), the pervasive and widespread sources of hazards (very low improved sanitation coverage), and the widespread use of highly vulnerable water points there is little evidence that simply using an arbitrary lateral spacing between hazard sources and water point of 30 – 50 m would provide effective protection for groundwater points. An alternative framework that considers vertical as well as lateral separation and the integrity of the construction and casing of the deeper water points is recommended to protect water supplies from contamination by pathogens.
- The shallow aquifer, accessed by wells and springs, must be treated as highly vulnerable to pollution, both from diffuse sources and from localised sources. Diffuse pollution of groundwater from surface-deposited wastes including human excreta is likely to be at least as important as pollution from pit latrines and other point sources, given the low sanitation coverage in Sierra Leone.
- Even though conditions are not optimal for pathogen survival (e.g. temperatures of >25° C), given the very highly permeable shallow tropical soil zone, and the high potential surface and subsurface loading of pathogens, it is likely that shallow water sources are at risk from pathogen pollution, particularly during periods of intense rainfall and high water table conditions.
- Extending improved sanitation must be a high priority, in conjunction with improved vertical separation between hazard sources and water points, in order to reduce environmental contamination and provide a basis for improved public health.
- We recommend that risk assessments of water points are undertaken for health care facilities as soon as possible including: detailed sanitary inspections of water points within the 30 – 50 m radius suggested by the Ministry of Water Resource; assessments of the construction and integrity of the water points; a wider survey of contaminant load and rapid surface / sub surface transit routes within a wider 200 m radius of water points.
- Analysis of key water quality parameters and monitoring of water levels should be undertaken at each water point in parallel with the risk assessments. The translation of policy on water, sanitation and hygiene into implementation needs complementary research to understand key hydrogeological processes as well as barriers and failings of current practice for reducing contamination in water points. A baseline assessment of water quality status and sanitary risks for e.g. wells vs boreholes, improved vs unimproved sources in Sierra Leone is needed. Understanding the role of the tropical soil zone in the rapid migration of pollutants in the shallow subsurface, i.e. tracing rapid pathways, and quantifying residence times of shallow and deep groundwater systems are key knowledge gaps.
Photo: A well close to the community care facility at Kumala Primary School, Sierra Leone. Used with permission for the report from Enam Hoque (Oxfam).