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9. In rural areas groundwater is often the cheapest source of safe drinking water
The capital cost of a borehole and handpump is about USD40 per person (say USD1.50 per person per year). The recurrent costs are about USD4.50 per person per year. The total is about USD6.00 per person per year. Piped schemes cost about twice as much.
[Source: WASHCost Working Paper 8, 2013, IRCwash.org]
10. In urban areas many people use shallow ground-water despite the fact that it is very vulnerable to pollution
The high cost of connection to piped water services makes it more attractive to use a private well despite the poor water quality
[Source: Danert, K, Adekile, D and Gesti Canuto, J (2014) Manually Drilled Boreholes: Providing water in Nigeria’s Megacity of Lagos and Beyond, Skat Foundation http://www.rural-water-supply.net/en/resources/details/618]