New UPGro paper: “Risk Factors associated with rural water supply: A 30-year retrospective study of handpumps on the south coast of Kenya”

2018 promises to be really interesting one as the UPGro (Unlocking the Potential of Groundwater for the Poor) reaches maturity. There is already a lot published since 2014 (https://upgro.org/publications-papers/peer-reviewed-journal-papers/) and here is a new one, which will be of interest to RWSN members – as it has been written by active RWSN members:

“Risk Factors associated with rural water supply: A 30-year retrospective study of handpumps on the south coast of Kenya”

By Tim Foster, Juliet Willetts, Mike Lane, Patrick Thomson, Jacob Katuva, Rob Hope

Key Points

  • This paper build on previous handpump & water point functionality work done by RWSN, the UPGro Gro For GooD and UPGro Hidden Crisis projects and recent analysis by the University of North Carolina
  • Research focuses on 337 Afridev handpumps installed in Kwale County, Kenya, under a SIDA financed programme between 1983-1995 that were identified and mapped in 2013 (out of 559 recorded installations by the programme in that area).
  • 64% were still working after 25+ years
  • They conclude that risk of failure increases most significantly in relation to:
    • Salinity of the groundwater
    • Depth of the static groundwater level
    • When the water comes from an unconsolidated sand aquifers
    • Distance to spare parts suppliers

You can read and download the paper here: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969717337324

and https://upgro.org/consortium/gro-for-good/

Supplementary info and water point data:

And in case you missed it – this is another recent paper that is readable and useful, albeit more for urban/peri-urban areas and small towns:

Grönwall, J. & Oduro-Kwarteng, Groundwater as a strategic resource for improved resilience: a case study from peri-urban Accra S. Environ Earth Sci (2018) 77: 6. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-017-7181-9

 

Figure: Kaplan-Meier estimates of the survival functions for Afridev handpumps in Kwale.

Vote for Roads for Water!

Following an UPGro Catalyst Grant, over the last three years much work has gone into making use of roads for water management. Roads have in many areas an enormous impact on hydrology. Now often negative with roads causing erosion and sedimentation, or creating floods and water logging, this can be turned around to making roads instruments for water harvesting.

Under the RoadsforWater initiative see also www.roadsforwater.org  this approach is introduced in ten countries already contributing to improved water security for more than 2 Million people – hoping to get much higher still. With a global investment in roads amounting to more than 1 Trillion dollar, ‘adding’ water management to road development and maintenance can have an enormous impact.

 We now have very good news and a request to make:

RoadsforWater is among the 11 finalists of the 2017 – Resilience Award! We invite you to vote for this powerful initiative before Monday (15th Jan) Midnight (US Eastern Standard Time)? 

Here is the link: https://goo.gl/R8wbsW – (it is number five on the list).

Thank you for supporting this RWSN-UPGro fostered collaboration. Please also take some time to visit www.roadsforwater.org to find about more about this really interesting and successful initiative.

UNICEF to commission remote sensing prospection of groundwater in Ethiopia

UNICEF Ethiopia plans in 2018 to map the groundwater potential of 41 woredas (administrative divisions) within EU’s Resilience Building programme (RESET II). The methodology used in 2016/17 can be found in the links below:

 The mapping and geophysical prospection ToR has been tendered here:

https://www.ungm.org/Public/Notice/66814

(Please note that this work is not connected to UPGro and its partners and funders, and we cannot respond to queries about this work).

New UPGro paper calls for city planners and utilities in Africa to diversify water supply solutions

A UPGro paper has been published by Dr Jenny Grönwall (SIWI) and Dr Sampson Oduro-Kwarteng (KNUST) of the T-GroUP project, entitled “Groundwater as a strategic resource for improved resilience: a case study from peri-urban Accra”

Water insecurity is a growing concern globally, especially for developing countries, where a range of factors including urbanization are putting pressure on water provisioning systems.

The role of groundwater and aquifers in buffering the effects of climate variability is increasingly acknowledged, but it can only be fully realized with a more robust understanding of groundwater as a resource, and how use of it and dependency on it differ.

Accra, in Ghana, and its hinterland is a good example of an African city with chronic water shortages, where groundwater resources offer opportunities to improve resilience against recurring droughts and general water insecurity.

Based on a mixed-methods study of a peri-urban township, it was found that for end users, particularly poor urban households, resilience is an every-day matter of ensuring access from different sources, for different purposes, while attention to drinking water safety is falling behind.

Planners and decision makers should take their cue from how households have developed coping mechanisms by diversifying, and move away from the focus on large infrastructure and centralized water supply solutions.

Conjunctive use, managed aquifer recharge, and suitable treatment measures are vital to make groundwater a strategic resource on the urban agenda.

Download and read the open paper here

photo: Dr Grönwall

UPGro Ambassador leads “Groundwater in IWRM” training in Mali

re-posted from Cap-Net newsletter

A Training Workshop on Groundwater Management within IWRM in River Basin Context was held from 21 to 25 November 2017 in Ségou, Mali.  It was organised in collaboration with the Country Coordination of Natural Resources Users in the Niger Basin (CNU-Mali), Regional Coordination of Natural Resources Users in the Niger Basin (CRU-BN) and Africa Groundwater Network (AGW-Net). The workshop was facilitated by Dr. Moustapha DIENE Hydrogeologist at University Cheikh Anta Diop of Dakar (Senegal), AGW-Net Manager and Prof. Amadou Zanga Traoré, retired Professor in Hydrogeology, from ENI (School of Engineers in Bamako, Mali).

Continue reading UPGro Ambassador leads “Groundwater in IWRM” training in Mali

Bienvenue dans l’équipe BRAVE, Grace! Introducing BRAVE’s New Communications Manager: Grace Labeodan

BRAVE is very pleased to introduce Grace Labeodon as its new Communications Manager.   Grace is originally from Liverpool (Northwest England) and has a background in law and communications.  She brings experience of working with NGOs, grassroots civil society groups and youth advocacy initiatives. Grace is passionate about the SDGs, child’s rights, and sustainable livelihoods.  As a dedicated development professional, she is committed to working in support of resilience strategies necessary for effective response to climate change and evolving resource management agendas. Grace is currently pursuing a Masters in Applied International Development at the University of Reading.

Grace is also a member of the Walker Institute’s Knowledge Management Team, which is responsible for delivering effective and relevant communications to researchers, partners and stakeholders across the Walker Institute’s portfolio.

Grace will assume all BRAVE communications responsibilities from December 1, including the BRAVE Website, Blog, Newsletter, and all Social Media.  Contact Grace if you wish to discuss how you or your organization can be featured across BRAVE or the Walker Institute’s Communications Platforms. grace.labeodan@reading.ac.uk

Welcome to the BRAVE Team, Grace!

BRAVE est très heureux de présenter Grace Labeodon comme son nouveau directeur des communications. Grace est originaire de Liverpool (nord-ouest de l’Angleterre) et a une formation en droit et en communication. Elle apporte son expérience de travail avec des ONG, des groupes de la société civile locale et des initiatives de défense de la jeunesse. Grace est passionnée par les ODD, les droits de l’enfant et les moyens de subsistance durables. En tant que professionnelle dévouée du développement, elle s’engage à soutenir les stratégies de résilience nécessaires à une réponse efficace au changement climatique et à l’évolution des programmes de gestion des ressources. Grace poursuit actuellement une maîtrise en développement international appliqué à l’Université de Reading.

Grace est également membre de l’équipe de gestion des connaissances de l’Institut Walker, chargée de fournir des communications efficaces et pertinentes aux chercheurs, aux partenaires et aux intervenants du portefeuille de l’Institut Walker.

Grace assumera toutes les responsabilités de communication de BRAVE à partir du 1er décembre, y compris le site Web BRAVE, le blog, le bulletin d’information et tous les médias sociaux. Contactez Grace si vous souhaitez discuter de la façon dont vous ou votre organisation pouvez être présenté à travers BRAVE ou les plates-formes de communication de l’Institut Walker.  grace.labeodan@reading.ac.uk

Bienvenue dans l’équipe BRAVE, Grace!

BRAVE Student – Échange de Recherche Communautaire

Le projet BRAVE apporte une approche unique d’intégration des sciences sociales et physiques et de travail, en partenariat avec les communautés locales, pour soutenir la traduction et l’adoption efficaces des activités de recherche. Les co-bénéfices donnent aux étudiants et aux chercheurs l’opportunité d’apprendre directement des communautés sur ce dont ils ont besoin et comment le projet BRAVE peut être le plus efficace et bénéfique pour les communautés locales et les partenaires. Un exemple principal de ce travail est démontré par les échanges de recherche étudiants et communautaires de BRAVE. Dans le cadre du projet BRAVE, trois bassins versants ont été équipés d’une infrastructure permettant un suivi détaillé de tous les aspects du bilan hydrique. Sur le site de Sanon au Burkina Faso, le suivi est assuré par Narcisse Gahi, PDRA BRAVE qui siège au sein de l’IRC, et par Jean Pierre Sandwidi à l’Université de Ouagadougou, ainsi que Mahamadou Koita au 2iE. Dans les bassins versants du Vea au Ghana et au Burkina Faso, il est dirigé par le technicien WASCAL, Sammy Guug, avec l’aide du Water Research Institute.

Sur le site du village de Sanon, le projet a loué des logements locaux où les étudiants vivent pendant la saison des pluies. Jusqu’à présent, au cours de deux saisons humides, trois étudiants de MSc et sept étudiants de BSc de l’Université de Ouagadougou et 2iE ont recueilli des données pour le projet. Ces étudiants viennent de cours liés à l’hydrologie et à la biologie. Sur les sites de Vea Catchment, un étudiant au doctorat WASCAL a collecté des données, ainsi qu’un stagiaire et un étudiant BSc. Il est plaisant de voir cette collaboration à la fois améliorer la collecte de données et renforcer les capacités des étudiants locaux.

Pendant ces séjours, les étudiants, les chercheurs et les communautés apprennent les uns des autres à travers des recherches menées et des échanges collaboratifs. Les étudiants et les chercheurs apprennent comment mener des travaux sur le terrain dans les communautés qui acquièrent une compréhension critique et une expérience des techniques de collecte de données, mais aussi le rôle des communautés dans le processus de recherche. Les communautés acquièrent également une compréhension de première main de la recherche menée dans leur communauté ainsi qu’un aperçu du travail important accompli par les universités nationales et de la façon dont ce travail peut produire des bénéfices à l’échelle nationale et communautaire. L’équipe du projet BRAVE est très reconnaissante envers les étudiants, leurs superviseurs et les communautés BRAVE pour ces opportunités.

A+ for UPGro

Each year we have to provide a detailed progress report on how UPGro is doing to the Programme Executive Board (comprising NERC, DFID and ESRC). The scoring system works as follows:

A++      Substantially exceeds expectations
A+       Exceeds expectations
A        Met expectations
B        Moderately did not reach expectations
C        Substantially did not reach expectations.

From 2013 to 2016, UPGro scored “A” so we are delighted that DFID have confirmed  that for this year the score is “A+”, and within that Output 4 “Current and potential groundwater users participate and influence the UPGro research and are presented with the findings” scored “A++”

 The final draft review report noted “This is an improvement on the A rating awarded in previous years, reflecting largely an improvement in the demonstrable uptaking of UPGro research, influencing stakeholders”  The final public version of the report will be posted here https://devtracker.dfid.gov.uk/projects/GB-1-203774/documents in the coming weeks, alongside the reports from previous years.

A huge thanks to all 137 UPGro researchers, plus students and research partners.

“Groundwater is the key to Unlocking Green Growth in Africa”

On 25th October, the prestigious keynote Ineson Lecture 2017 at the Geological Society in London was given by Dr Callist Tindimugaya, head of Water Resource Planning and Regulation in Uganda’s Ministry of Water & Environment, and one of four UPGro Ambassadors. In his speech he highlighted the importance understanding and managing groundwater well, not for its own sake but because it is a natural resource that underpins most, if not all, African societies and economies.

However, he expressed his frustration that the economic contribution of this resource has not yet been properly quantified so that its invisible contribution is made plain to all, from ordinary citizens to political leaders. Nevertheless, he was encouraged by the many initiatives across the continent to address the knowledge gaps and to improve the visibility and use of groundwater – in particular the importance of the UPGro programme and GRIPP. He concluded: “You cannot milk a cow, if you do not feed it”, likewise if the potential benefits of Africa’s aquifers are to be realised, then investment is needed in research, monitoring, regulation and – most of all – in education and training.

The day-long event was well attended and as well as a lively debate and a presentation by Guy Howard, DFID WASH policy team leader, there were numerous inputs from across UPGro, including: presentations by Prof. Richard Taylor about GroFutures and the Chronicles Consortium; from Brighid Ó Dochartaigh about the Africa Groundwater Altas; from Prof. Alan MacDonald about the Hidden Crisis project; and an array of posters from UPGro Catalyst and Consortia research, including a poster on the AMGRAF project by David Walker (Newcastle University) supported by UPGro and REACH, which had won the award for best Early Career Researcher poster at the recent 44th IAH Congress in Dubrovnik.

A huge thank you to Brighid Ó Dochartaigh and all the organisers at  IAH BGS, and Geol. Soc.

 

UPGro takes advice from leading African experts

The day before the 2017 Ineson Lecture, a meeting was held in the Council Chamber of the Geological Society in London at which the project leaders, programme board members from NERC and DFID, and the Knowledge Broker team met with three of the UPGro Ambassadors: Dr Callist Tindimugaya, Ministry of Water & Environment, Uganda; Prof. Moustapha Diene, U. Cheikh Anta Diop, Senegal; Prof. Muna Mirghani, Technische Universität Berlin.

Prof. Richard Carter made opening remarks on behalf of the Knowledge Broker team welcoming everyone to the event followed an icebreaker exercise so that everyone in the room got to know each other.

The aim of the workshop was to bring together representatives from the UPGro Consortia, the Knowledge Broker team, the Programme Executive Board (PEB), and the UPGro Ambassadors to reflect on the progress of the UPGro programme to date and to set the priorities for maximising the impact of the research over the next 2 years. It was the first opportunity for the Ambassadors to share their experiences of the challenges and opportunities facing groundwater resources across Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in relation to improving opportunities for the poor.

The three UPGro Ambassadors who were present gave a short overview of their backgrounds, their current role and their personal and professional interests in African groundwater research, development and management. They were all co-founders of the African Groundwater Network.

Prof. Dr Moustapha Diene

  • Senior Assistant Professor
  • Started in surface water
  • Interested in capacity development and practical knowledge of groundwater (manager of AGW-Net)
  • Groundwater is mysterious and difficult to illustrate

Prof. Dr Muna Mirghani

  • Visiting Professor lecturing in IWRM and runs WaterTrac consultancy in Sudan
  • Started in civil engineering
  • Interested in groundwater within IWRM implementation and governance (including catchment frameworks and transboundary issues) and drought governance.

Dr Callist Tindimugaya

  • Commissioner for Water Resources Planning & Regulation
  • Has worked for the Government since 1990 on water and groundwater in particular.
  • Interested in getting groundwater high on the agenda of political leaders and funders.

Each Ambassador presented an overview of what they see as the key issues facing the understanding, use and management of groundwater in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Using posters that had been created at a previous UPGro workshop (in Montpellier, Sept 2016), members from each of the five projects, plus Brighid from the Africa Groundwater Atlas, gave concise overviews of what each study is trying to achieve and summary of some of the early findings that are emerging.

After the presentations in the morning, the afternoon focused on discussions that pulled together the various strands of the conversation so far and some important questions to the Ambassadors on ways that the UPGro research can create more impact:

How do we move beyond conventional dissemination pathways and in what form do we deliver that information?

  • Be ready to share now what is being done, not waiting until the end. Otherwise, there is a danger that stakeholders think you have an agenda. Use national fora like Joint Sector Reviews and sector working groups to get some feedback and build appetite for your research. Remember to use simple language but not to over-simplify your message.
  • Politicians need to be approached indirectly. Decisions are made at a technical level. Build confidence in the results. Politicians learn through their assistants.

Other observations on research into action:

  • An important role for the Knowledge Broker is to interpret results and make them as non-technical as possible, without misrepresenting the extent to which the results answer the questions that decision-makers may have;
  • Corruption: can lead to evidence being completely ignored, and is difficult to deal with;
  • Political leaders have to make socially acceptable trade-offs, and are aware that citizens en masse have power through votes and demonstrations;
  • It is important to be neutral and not to frame evidence to push a specific gender;
  • Where are the influencing opportunities on the horizon?
  • Peer-to-peer learning between countries, River Basin Organisations, governments, donors can be an important uptake mechanism for new evidence;
  • Good short, punchy stories are important because they can be used as anecdotes to explain why UPGro is a great programme. These stories should not be afraid to cut-across projects where there is a common topic, such as finance, gender, climate change or governance.

Sum-up by Richard Carter

1. Integration of social and physical sciences : each project is taking a slightly different approach;

2. Synthesising: We need to get the messages right; there are some assumption about groundwater responses to wider changes (population growth, climate change) that shouldn’t be taken for granted;

3. There are variety of non-specialist audiences and we need to cater for that, from school children to senior government advisors;

4. We need to elevate the conversation beyond groundwater to the wider issues around food security, environment, industrialisation and employment.

5. We should be more confident about the positioning of groundwater – most of the world’s fresh water is groundwater so our communication should be too shy about that.

From the left – Moustapha Diene; Brighid Ó Dochartaigh, Muna Mirghani, Callist Tindimugaya, Richard Taylor, Alan MacDonald, Rob Hope, Kirsty Upton, Mohammad Shamsudduha, Tom Doyle, Michelle Truman, Jan Willem Foppen. (Not in the picture: Richard Carter, Ken Wright, Ken de Souza, Sean Furey)