UPGro at 44th IAH Congress

Once again, UPGro has a strong presence at the annual congress of the International Association of Hydrogeologists, which this year is in Dubrovnik, Croatia. UPGro highlights this year include:

T2.2. THE ROLE OF GROUNDWATER IN REDUCING POVERTY
Conveners: Alan Macdonald (BGS/Hidden Crisis) and Viviana Re

With presentations by:

T2.2.1 Tim Foster: “A Multi-Decadal Financial Assessment of Groundwater Services For Low-Income Households in Rural Kenya” (Gro For Good)

T2.2.4 Fabio Fussi: “Characterization Of Shallow Aquifers In Guinea Bissau To Support The Promotion Of Manual Drilling At Country Level” (Remote Sensing For Manual Drilling Catalyst)

T2.2.5 David Walker: “Comparison Of Multiple Groundwater Recharge Assessment Methods For A Shallow Aquifer: Why Are The Results So Varied?” (AMGRAF Catalyst)

T2.2.6 Adrian Healy: “Exploiting Our Groundwater Resource: Choices And Challenges In Managing The Water Commons”  (Upgro Spin-Off Project)

T2.2.9 Richard Taylor: “Large-Scale Modelling Of Groundwater Resources: Insight from The Comparison Of Models And In-Situ Observations In Sub-Saharan Africa” (GroFutures)

T2.2.11 Jade Ward: “Rapid Screening for Pathogens In Drinking Water: Preliminary Results From A National Scale Survey In Malawi” (Hidden Crisis)

T2.2.13 Alan Macdonald: “Hand Pump Functionality: Are The Rural Poor Getting A Raw Deal ?” (Hidden Crisis)

And in other sessions:

T2.3.3 Núria Ferrer: “How Do New Development Activities Affect Coastal Groundwater Systems In Africa? The Case Of Kwale, Kenya” (Gro for GooD)

T4.4.6 Richard Taylor: “Recent Changes in Terrestrial Water Storage In The Upper Nile Basin: An Evaluation Of Commonly Used Gridded Grace Products” (GroFutures)

T4.4.3 Albert Folch: “Combining Different Techniques To Monitor Seawater Intrusion Integrating Different Observation Scales” (Gro for GooD)

T2.6.1 Johanna Koehler: “A Cultural Theory of Groundwater Risks And Social Responses In Rural Kenya” (Gro for GooD)

Posters:

T2.2.14 Jacob Katuva: “Groundwater and Poverty – Evidence From Kwale, Kenya” (Gro for GooD)

T2.2.15 David Walker: “Investigating the Resilience of Shallow Groundwater Resources in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Case Study from Ethiopia” (AMGRAF Catalyst)

T2.3.14 Moshood N. Tijani: “Hydrogeological and Hydraulic Characterization of Weathered Crystalline Basement Aquifers of Ibarapa Area, Southwestern Nigeria” (GroFutures)

From Tyneside to Abidjan: UPGro @ 7th RWSN Forum

Pictured: Prof. Richard Carter on the UPGro stand at the 7th RWSN Forum

I had the pleasure of recently attending the 7th RWSN Forum, held from 29th November to 2nd December 2016 in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire.  The conference is only every five years so I am fortunate that it fell during the third year of my PhD giving me not only the opportunity to attend, but also the chance to contribute some of my own research completed thus far.

The conference delegates came from a mixture of backgrounds, from both local and global scale NGOs to government ministries, and from financiers like the World Bank to pump manufacturers.  It was a great opportunity to share experiences and create connections with people outside of the world of academia and consultancies, which dominated many other conferences that I have attended.

The 7th RWSN Forum was a chance for water infrastructure installers and financiers to learn more about the water resources which they are hoping to exploit.  The conference also allowed water resource researchers to find out what kind of information NGOs and ministries require in order to plan and manage interventions.

There were a number of oral and poster presentations and company stands at the RWSN Forum expounding solutions to WASH shortfalls and food insecurity, such as manual drilling technologies, solar and foot powered pumps, and smart technology to transmit water point equipment performance.  While all of these technologies undeniably have much to offer, without a reliable and renewable water resource their usefulness dwindles.  Therefore, the relevance of the UPGro projects in emphasising sustainable management of groundwater is clear.

An UPGro catalyst grant initiated the AMGRAF (Adaptive management of shallow groundwater for small-scale irrigation and poverty alleviation in sub-Saharan Africa) project in 2013.  The catalyst grant funded hydrogeological investigations, the setting up of a community‑based hydrometeorological monitoring programme, and gender separated focus groups in Dangila woreda, northwest Ethiopia.  My own research has developed from the AMGRAF project and concerns the potential for shallow groundwater resources to be used for irrigation by poor rural communities, lessening the reliance on increasingly inconsistent rains.  Research principally focuses on two field sites; Dangila in Ethiopia and in Limpopo province in South Africa.  The resilience of the shallow groundwater resources to climate variability and increasing abstraction is being assessed through modelling.  To construct the models, it is vital to have data on aquifer parameters as well as time series of rainfall, river flow and groundwater levels for model calibration.  The presentation I gave at the forum concerned the computation of these aquifer parameters from pumping tests of hand dug wells and the collection of the aforementioned time series via the community‑based monitoring program.

I enjoyed the week I spent in Côte d’Ivoire, a country that I may never have had the chance to visit without the RWSN Forum.  I believe the connections made with groundwater specialists from around sub-Saharan Africa will greatly benefit my PhD in terms of testing the transferability of the research with data from their countries.  Leaving Abidjan, I had the same feeling as everyone else I spoke to at the conference: “Please RWSN, why does this only happen every five years!”

David Walker, PhD Candidate, Newcastle University, UK – read his RWSN Forum Paper: “Properties of shallow thin regolith aquifers in sub-Saharan Africa: a case study from northwest Ethiopia [061]

UPGro at the RWSN Forum

Groundwater is critical to rural water supply – for many uses and in many parts of the world, not just in Africa. Therefore understanding of aquifers and how to use them sustainably is essential to tackling rural poverty.

So that is why we will be at the 7th RWSN Forum next week in Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire, to present the work of UPGro and to network with delegates from all over Africa (and the world) on how interdisciplinary research in African groundwater can deliver tangible benefits.

Highlights to look out for:

We look forward to seeing you there!

Cultiver les données : comment les agriculteurs éthiopiens récoltent les données pour favoriser leurs semis #60IAH2016

Quel temps va-t-il faire ? Beaucoup de gens se posent la question, mais pour beaucoup d’Éthiopiens la réponse peut faire la différence entre affluence et pauvreté. L’Èthiopie est un pays riche et divers de près de 100 millions d’habitants, 88 langues différentes et une histoire ancienne et remarquable. Ses hauts plateaux sont humides et fertiles lors de la saison des pluies, alors que ses plaines désertiques comptent parmi les endroits les plus arides de la Terre.

Dangila woreda (district) est une zone montagneuse dans le nord ouest du pays avec une population de 160 000 personnes environ répartie sur 900 km2. Bien que la zone recoive 1 600mm de précipitations annuelles, plus de 90% des pluies ont lieu entre mai et octobre. Les agriculteurs, qui dépendent de leurs troupeaux et de leurs cultures pluviales, doivent absolument comprendre et prévoir les variations de précipitations pour assurer leur ubsistance. Les statégies traditionnelles, utilisées depuis des millénaires, sont menacées par les effets conjugués des changements climatiques, de la dégradation des sols et de la croissance démographique.

Le manque de données sur les précipitations, le débit des eaux de surface et le niveau des eaux souterraines empêche de savoir exactement ce qui passe actuellement et ce qui pourrait arriver ensuite. Dans la majeure partie de l’Afrique sub-saharienne, les gouvernements n’ont pas assez investi dans le suivi-évaluation des conditions environnementales, qui décline et rend de plus en plus difficile la gestion des ressources en eau.

Et si c’étaient ceux qui ont le plus à gagner d’une compréhension et d’une gestion améliorée des ressources en eau qui pilotaient la collecte des données ? Les communautés sont-elles capables de collecter des données fiables sur la météo, les riviéres et les eaux souterraines ? C’est ce qu’explore une équipe de chercheurs de l’Université de Newcastle au Royaume Uni avec le projet AMGRAF[i] financé par UPGro[1].

Dans une nouvelle publication dans le Journal of Hydrology, David Walker et ses collègues expliquent pourquoi ils pensent que la science citoyenne a un avenir dans les zones rurales d’Èthiopie et au delà :

« Les bénéfices de la participation des communautés aux démarches scientifiques sont progressivement reconnus dans plusieurs disciplines, notamment parce que cela permet au grand public de mieux comprendre la science et de mieux s’approprier les résultats, avec une certaine fierté même. Et cela sert à la fois les individus et les processus de planification locaux. » précise Walker. « Parce qu’il y a si peu de stations de suivi-évaluation officielles, et que les zones à étudier et à gérer sont si vastes, il nous faut penser à d’autres méthodes de collecte des données. »

Le programme de suivi-évaluatio communautaire a démarré en février 2014 et les habitants d’une zone appellée Dangesheta ont été impliqués dans l’implantation de nouvelles jauges pluviométriques et de rivières et dans l’identification des puits adéquats pour le suivi. Cinq puits sont jaugés manuellement tous les deux jours, avec une mesure de la profondeur et du niveau d’eau ; une jauge pluviométrique a été installée dans la métairie d’un résident qui effectuait les relevés quotidiennement à 9h ; deux jauges ont été installées sur les rivières Kilti et Brante et étaient relevés tous les jours à 6h et 18h. Chaque mois, les bénévoles remettaient le registre de leurs relevés au bureau du Dangila woreda district, qui les saisissait dans un fichier excel et les envoyait ensuite à l’équipe de recherche.

Mais ces données sont-elles fiables ? Pour David et ses collègues, c’était une question déterminante pour le succès ou l’échec du projet. La validation des données est toujours un défi, qui souffre généralement de deux types d’erreurs :

Les erreurs d’échantillonage proviennent de la variabilité des pluies, du débit des eaux de surface et du niveau des eaux souterraines dans le temps et dans l’espace. Ce type d’erreur augmente avec les précipitations et diminue avec une plus grande densité de jauges. Le défi dans les zones tropicales comme l’Éthiopie c’est que la plupart de la pluie tombe sous la forme d’orages diluviens, qui peuvent être assez courts et petits et donc faciles à rater, ou bien seulement partiellement relevés, si la densité des stations météo est faible.

Le deuxième type d’erreurs sont les erreurs d’observation, qui peuvent avoir plusieurs causes : des vents forts renversant la jauge, l’évaporation vidant la jauge, et bien sûr l’observateur qui peut ne pas  lire la jauge  correctement ou bien mal transcrire ses observations.

« C’est compliqué de relever les erreurs mais c’est possible, surtout en faisant des comparaisons statistiques avec les résultats de stations météo et d’autres sources bien établies» confie Walker. « Nous constatons que les données collectées par les communautés sont plus fiables que celles collectées par télédétection satellite. »

Nous espérons que cette approche prometteuse sera davantage soutenue et sera utilisée plus largement, mais quels sont les secrets et les défis d’une participation communautaire réussie ?

 

« Les gens sont au cœur du processus, donc la sélection des bénévoles est une étape fondamentale pour éviter la falsification des données ou le vandalisme » conclut Walker. « Les retours sur les résultats sont aussi absolument cruciaux: les données peuvent être présentées et analysées avec la communauté lors d’ateliers ou de réunions collectives, leur permettant ainsi de prendre des décisions sur la meilleure utilisation des précipitations, des eaux de surface et des eaux souterraines pour garantir l’approvisionnement en eau de leurs fermes et de leurs familles. »

Ces travaux de recherche se poursuivent grâce à une bourse[2] de REACH : Améliorer la sécurité hydrique pour les populations pauvres, un programme piloté par l’Université d’Oxford.

[1]               « UPGro – Libérer le potentiel des eaux souterraines pour les populations pauvres » est un programme de recherche international de 7 ans (2013-2019) qui est co-financé par le Département pour le développement international (DFID) du Royaume Uni, le Conseil de Recherche pour l’environnement naturel (NERC) et le Conseil de Recherche Economique et Sociale (ESRC). Il vise à renforcer et améliorer les données factuelles sur la disponibilité et la gestion des eaux souterraines en Afrique Sub-Saharienne (ASS), afin de permettre aux pays en développement de la région et à leurs partenaires d’utiliser ces eaux souterraines de façon durable au bénéfice des populations pauvres. Les projets UPGro sont interdisciplinaires, liant sciences sociales et sciences naturelles pour relever ce défi.

[2]               http://reachwater.org.uk/grants-catalyse-12-new-water-security-projects/

[i]               AMGRAF: Adaptive Management of GRoundwater for small scale-irrigation and poverty alleviation in sub-Saharan AFrica: https://upgro.org/catalyst-projects/amgraf/ and http://research.ncl.ac.uk/amgraf/

Data farming – how Ethiopian farmers harvest data to help their crops

What’s the weather doing? It’s a question that obsesses many but for many Ethiopians it is question that makes the difference between plenty and destitution.  Ethiopia is a rich and diverse country that is home to around 100 million people, 88 different languages and imbued with long, diverse history. Its highlands are seasonally wet and fertile and its lowland deserts are among the most parched places on Earth.

Dangila woreda, or district, is a hilly area in the north west of the country with a population of around 160,000 people spread across an area of about 900 km2. Although the area receives rainfall at around 1,600mm a year, over 90% of this falls between May and October.  For farmers, who depend on livestock and rainfed crops, understanding and predicting these rains is crucial to their livelihoods. Traditional strategies, which have served for millennia, are coming under threat from new pressures of shifting climate patterns, land degradation and population growth.

Exactly what is happening now and what is likely to happen in the future is uncertain due to the lack of rainfall, river flow and groundwater level data.  Throughout much of Sub-Saharan Africa, under-investment by governments has led to a widespread decline in environmental monitoring, and this in turn makes water resources management harder and harder.

But what if those who stood to gain most from better understanding and management of water resources were those leading the data collection? Can communities reliably collect accurate weather, river and groundwater data? This is the question that is being investigated by researchers, led by Newcastle University in the UK through an UPGro-supported[i] project called AMGRAF[ii]).

In a new paper in the Journal of Hydrology[iii], David Walker and his colleagues explain why they think citizen science has a future in rural Ethiopia and beyond:

“The benefits of community involvement in science are being slowly recognised across many fields, in large part because it helps build public understanding of science, ownership and pride in the results, and this can benefit both individuals and local planning processes,” said Walker.  “Because there are so few formal monitoring stations and such large areas that need to be understood and managed, we need to think differently about how data collection can be done.”

The community-based monitoring programme was started in February 2014 and residents of an area called Dangesheta were involved in the siting new rain and river gauges, and identifying wells that were suitable to be monitored.  Five wells are manually dipped every two days, with a deep meter to measure the depth from the ground surface and the water level in the well; a rain gauge was installed in the smallholding of a resident who then took measurements every day at 9am; two river gauge boards were installed in the Kilti and Brante rivers and were monitored daily at 6am and 6pm. Every month, the volunteers would then give their hard copy records to the Dangila woreda government office, who then typed them into an Excel spreadsheet and emailed to the research team.

But is this data any good? For David and his colleagues, this was a critical question that could make or break the whole approach.  The challenges of data validation are substantial, and there are generally two types of error:

Sampling errors come from the variability of rainfall, river flow and groundwater level over time and over area. The sampling error increases with rainfall and decreases with increased gauge density. A challenge in tropical areas, such as Ethiopia, is much of the rain is high-intensity thunderstorms, which can be quite short in duration and small in size, and therefore easy to miss, or only partially record, if the density of monitoring stations is low.

Observational errors are the second type, and can come from a number of things:  wind turbulence, splashing around the gauge, evaporation can affect how much is in the rain gauge, and then the observer might not read the gauge accurately or make a mistake or unclear notation, when writing the measurement down.

“Tracking down errors is tricky, but it can be done, mainly through statistical comparison with established monitoring stations and with each other,” said Walker. “What we found was that the community collected data is more reliable than that gathered through remote sensing instruments from satellites.”

It is hoped that this promising approach can attract further support and be used more widely, but what are the secrets, and challenges, to making community monitoring work?

“People are at the heart of this process and selection of volunteers is crucial to avoid problems with data falsification or vandalism,” concluded Walker.  “Feedback is absolutely vital and through workshops and meetings the data can be presented and analysed with the community so that they can make decisions on how best use the available rainfall, river flows, and groundwater to provide secure sources of water for their farms and their homes.”

 

Research continues through a research grant[1] from REACH: Improving water security for the poor, a programme led by Oxford University.

Figure 1:

[1] http://reachwater.org.uk/grants-catalyse-12-new-water-security-projects/

[i] “UPGro – Unlocking the Potential of Groundwater for the Poor” is a seven-year international research programme (2013-2019) which is jointly funded by UK’s Department for International Development (DFID), Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) and in principle the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC). It focuses on improving the evidence base around groundwater availability and management in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to enable developing countries and partners in SSA to use groundwater in a sustainable way in order to benefit the poor. UPGro projects are interdisciplinary, linking the social and natural sciences to address this challenge. T

[ii] AMGRAF: Adaptive Management of GRoundwater for small scale-irrigation and poverty alleviation in sub-Saharan AFrica: https://upgro.org/catalyst-projects/amgraf/ and http://research.ncl.ac.uk/amgraf/

[iii] D. Walker et al, “Filling the observational void: Scientific value and quantitative validation of hydrometeorological data from a community-based monitoring programme” Journal of Hydrology 538 (2016) 713-725 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022169416302554

Africa Groundwater Research

9th December 2014

Jan de Leeuw (presenter)
Dr Jan de Leeuw, World Forestry Centre (presenter)
John Chilton, BGS/IAH (Presenter)
John Chilton, IAH (Presenter)
Dr John Gowing, Newcastle University (Discussant)
John Gowing, Newcastle University (Discussant)

In this webinar, Jan de Leeuw presented his project’s work in developing and using a decision-support tool to enable a municipality to quantify the risk of developing a major new groundwater source from the Merti Aquifer, in Kenya. John Chilton presented disturbing evidence from Uganda about why handpumps fail and that some of the major problems come from poor installation and supervision in the first place – thus giving communities an uphill struggle to manage their water source sustainably. In the debate afterwards, John Gowing, of the AMGRAF project, and the participants asked some searching questions.

AMGRAF: increasing the capability of households and communities to improve their own lives

Dr Elisabeth Oughton (Newcastle University) presented aspects of the work of the UPGro project: AMGRAF – Adaptive Management of Groundwater in Africa, with a focus on the work in Ethiopia.

It is working from the bottom up to develop and promote the uptake of community management of shallow groundwater management. The researchers looked carefully at the different roles of men and women because women have can potentially benefit a lot from better water technologies and management.

However, this approach needs to be owned by the water users, be scalable and relate the government structure for water. Governance approach was focused on semi structured interviews with key participants, to build mutual understanding of roles and responsibilities.

In Ethiopia, there are currently strong formal institutions for surface irrigation from federal to local (kebele) level but not for shallow groundwater.

Understanding power was central to understanding poverty. Capabilities are those things on which we draw to live a full life, so how can capabilities be enhanced from the individual and household level, up through the levels of governance to national government.

Overall, Elizabeth made it very clear that managing groundwater needs to be focused on the needs of the most vulnerable, and the importance of good governance informed by sound science.