2018 promises to be really interesting one as the UPGro (Unlocking the Potential of Groundwater for the Poor) reaches maturity. There is already a lot published since 2014 (https://upgro.org/publications-papers/peer-reviewed-journal-papers/) and here is a new one, which will be of interest to RWSN members – as it has been written by active RWSN members:
“Risk Factors associated with rural water supply: A 30-year retrospective study of handpumps on the south coast of Kenya”
By Tim Foster, Juliet Willetts, Mike Lane, Patrick Thomson, Jacob Katuva, Rob Hope
- This paper build on previous handpump & water point functionality work done by RWSN, the UPGro Gro For GooD and UPGro Hidden Crisis projects and recent analysis by the University of North Carolina
- Research focuses on 337 Afridev handpumps installed in Kwale County, Kenya, under a SIDA financed programme between 1983-1995 that were identified and mapped in 2013 (out of 559 recorded installations by the programme in that area).
- 64% were still working after 25+ years
- They conclude that risk of failure increases most significantly in relation to:
- Salinity of the groundwater
- Depth of the static groundwater level
- When the water comes from an unconsolidated sand aquifers
- Distance to spare parts suppliers
You can read and download the paper here: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969717337324
Supplementary info and water point data:
And in case you missed it – this is another recent paper that is readable and useful, albeit more for urban/peri-urban areas and small towns:
Grönwall, J. & Oduro-Kwarteng, Groundwater as a strategic resource for improved resilience: a case study from peri-urban Accra S. Environ Earth Sci (2018) 77: 6. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-017-7181-9
Figure: Kaplan-Meier estimates of the survival functions for Afridev handpumps in Kwale.